By David M. Cook
God gave His people the Tanakh, made up of the Torah, known as “the Law”; the five foundation books written by Moses, and the Neviim and Treisar, known as “the Prophets”; the prophetic writings of the major and minor Hebrew prophets, Ketuvim, “the Writings”; the Psalms of David, the Wisdom of Solomon, the sufferings of Job and the Megilot which includes these five books; Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. The Tanakh, known as the “Old Testament” in the Christian Bible; is a most unique and amazing collection of literature. The triune Almighty God — Elohim (a Hebrew plural noun for Almighty God) who is revealed in the Torah, is a unique unified one. Elohim has been actively involved in the Biblical story line throughout history, from the beginning until now; as well as working in and through each writer. The Creator of the heavens and earth, the King of the universe, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob has given His people light, truth, revelation, and insight to understand His prophetic plan for humanity. The central character of God’s plan of redemption is the promised Messiah foretold by the prophets.
First and foremost we learn from the scriptures written by Moses in the Torah, to love the LORD your God with all your, heart, soul and strength;
4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.
5 Love the LORD your God with all your heart
and with all your soul and with all your strength.
6 These commandments that I give you today
are to be upon your hearts.
7 Impress them on your children.
Talk about them when you sit at home
and when you walk along the road,
when you lie down and when you get up.
8 Tie them as symbols on your hands
and bind them on your foreheads.
9 Write them on the doorframes
of your houses and on your gates.
Deuteronomy 6:4-9 NIV
Our second priority is to love people, loving your neighbor as yourself. If we love our neighbor we won’t covet what belongs to our neighbor, his house, his car, his fine threads or his wife. These two priorities, loving God with our all and loving all of our neighbors sums up the writings of the Torah and the Hebrew prophets.
8Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another;
for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law.
9For this, “YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY,
YOU SHALL NOT MURDER, YOU SHALL NOT STEAL,
YOU SHALL NOT COVET,”
and if there is any other commandment,
it is summed up in this saying,
“YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.”
10Love does no wrong to a neighbor;
therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.
Romans 13:8-10 NASB
If only we could do this each day, to love the Lord our God and to love every person in every instance. But let’s be honest, not every day nor in every way; have we loved God with our all and loved all of our neighbors as ourselves at all times, at least I know I haven’t. The prophet Isaiah tells us that I’m not alone.
All of us like sheep have gone astray,
Each of us has turned to his own way;
But the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all
To fall on Him.
Isaiah 53:6 NASB
Who is this righteous suffering Servant spoken of by Isaiah? Who is this sacrificial Lamb who the Lord causes all of our iniquity to fall on? All of us need a redemption. We need a Redeemer, a Deliver, all of us need a Savior. We need someone to redeem us, to deliver us, to save us from our all of our iniquities. When there is no repentance, when there is no faith in God and His provision for our sin, then judgment comes. Our sins have consequences, when God’s people refuse to listen, repent of sin and heed His Word, then the consequences are severe.
We read in 2 Chronicles chapter 36;
15 The LORD, the God of their fathers,
sent word to them through his messengers again and again,
because he had pity on his people and on his dwelling place.
16 But they mocked God’s messengers, despised his words
and scoffed at his prophets until the wrath of the LORD
was aroused against his people and there was no remedy.
17 He brought up against them the king of the Babylonians,
who killed their young men with the sword in the sanctuary,
and spared neither young man nor young woman, old man or aged.
God handed all of them over to Nebuchadnezzar.
18 He carried to Babylon all the articles from the temple of God,
both large and small, and the treasures of the LORD’s temple
and the treasures of the king and his officials.
19 They set fire to God’s temple
and broke down the wall of Jerusalem;
they burned all the palaces and destroyed everything of value there.
20 He carried into exile to Babylon the remnant,
who escaped from the sword,
and they became servants to him and his sons
until the kingdom of Persia came to power.
2 Chronicles 36:15-20 NIV
God’s own people mocked His messengers, despised His word and scoffed at His prophets until the wrath of the LORD was aroused against His people and there was no remedy. Why do we do this? Why such contempt of the Almighty, who is both our Father who is in heaven and a righteous Judge executing justice? Since Adam in the garden after the fall of man, the sin problem has spread from one generation to the next, without remedy until God’s plan of atonement by His righteous suffering Servant was revealed as foretold by Isaiah. How would God solve the “sin” dilemma, the problem that all people of all time have sinned, (except one) and bring redemption for those He chose and those He loves? God’s people despaired when they arrived in Babylon, it seemed no hope was to be found, and they were in captivity for many years. The first temple and much of Jerusalem including the wall were burned and destroyed. Many men and women, young and old were killed with the sword by the Babylonian army, but a remnant of Israel survived and were carried off to Babylon in exile for seventy years.
The Tanakh is a collection of scriptures inspired by God, when we read it or hear it read your faith may commence and increase. God gave His people an amazing prophecy in the book of Daniyel chapter 9 about the arrival of an anointed Prince who would atone for our iniquities, His advent is paramount for Israel;
“You are to know and understand
that from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem
until one anointed, the Prince,
there will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks;
it will be built again, with plaza and moat,
even in times of distress.”
Daniel 9:25 HSV
What important message was Gabriel sent to earth to communicate? Gabriel was sent to Daniel to let God’s people know when the Messiah the Prince would appear in history. Gabriel informed Daniel that from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince is presented, would be a specific period of time, “seven weeks and sixty-two weeks”.
When was the decree issued to restore and rebuild Jerusalem?
We read in the book of Nehemiah chapter 2,
1 In the month of Nisan in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes,
when wine was brought for him,
I took the wine and gave it to the king.
I had not been sad in his presence before; 2 so the king asked me,
“Why does your face look so sad when you are not ill?
This can be nothing but sadness of heart.”
I was very much afraid, 3 but I said to the king,
“May the king live forever!
Why should my face not look sad
when the city where my fathers are buried lies in ruins,
and its gates have been destroyed by fire?”
4 The king said to me, “What is it you want?”
Then I prayed to the God of heaven, 5 and I answered the king,
“If it pleases the king and if your servant
has found favor in his sight,
let him send me to the city in Judah where my fathers are buried
so that I can rebuild it.”
Nehemiah 2:1-4 NIV
We read in this scripture that Nehemiah asks permission of the ruler of the Persian Empire, King Artaxerxes; if he may go and rebuild Jerusalem in the month of Nisan, in the twentieth year of the reign King Artaxerxes. As we read further into the chapter we find out that permission was granted, with protection for safe passage to return to his homeland and building materials were provided as requested by Nehemiah. So the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem was issued by Artaxerxes Longimanus on March 14, 445 B.C.  Other mandates were issued by Cyrus King of the Persian Empire, we read of one in the book of Ezra chapter 1 verses 1 through 4. Cyrus issued a decree to rebuild the Jewish Temple, but since Gabriel stipulates in Daniel chapter 9 verse 25, “with plaza and moat” to restore and rebuild the city of Jerusalem (not the temple), therefore we can conclude that the decree issued by Artaxerxes Longimanus is the starting point to calculate the 69 weeks.
Israel’s hope and future is intimately intertwined with the advent of the anointed Prince, the promised Messiah. From the beginning God knew He would redeem His people, so that our sin would not separate us from knowing the true and living YHVH, the self existent God; who is the first cause of all. Out of God’s great love for His people it was His purpose to send His righteous Servant to atone for all our iniquity. The Hebrew prophets foretold that God’s promised Messiah, the anointed Prince would die a sacrificial death as a scapegoat for all sin.
Moses gives us a foreshadowing of this concept through the father of faith, our father Abraham. As you know, Abraham and Sarah were unable to have children but God gave him a promise that he would have a son, whose birth was a miracle. Our father Abraham, a loving father was tested, he was asked to sacrifice his beloved son on the altar, although God stopped him.  This is known in Hebrew as the Akedah. Because Abraham obeyed Elohim’s voice, God gave Abraham the promise that one of his “Seed” or offspring would bless all the nations of the earth.
“In your seed
all the nations of the earth shall be blessed,
because you have obeyed My voice.”
Genesis 22:18 NIV
Who is the promised Seed who will bless all the nations of the earth? This is a promise by God about the Messiah who would come to earth, in the fullness of times. God gave us the Akedah, the account of Abraham offering Isaac as a sacrifice in the Torah, in order to see what He Himself would be required to do for His people in the future. The Lord our God would provide a sacrifice for sin, His own beloved Son of promise, whose birth was a miracle, is the innocent Lamb who atoned for all our sin. God did provide for Himself the perfect Lamb, this was His plan for redemption for His people, to deliver us from our sin.
While Israel was in exile in Babylon, in response to Daniels contrite confession of his sin and the sins of his people God sent Gabriel with a special communiqué from the Almighty about the advent of an anointed Prince who would atone for the iniquity of us all – the promised Messiah.
24“Seventy weeks have been decreed
for your people and your holy city,
to finish the transgression, to make an end of sin,
to make atonement for iniquity,
to bring in everlasting righteousness,
to seal up vision and prophecy
and to anoint the most holy place.
Daniel 9:24 NASB
Some say we should look for the anointed Prince after 7 weeks (or 49 years), although when we look 49 years after the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem there is not an anointed Prince in Jerusalem who came to atone for sin. But when we look in history 69 weeks after the decree we discover who the anointed Prince is. So let’s go figure. When we think of a “week” we think of 7 days, but in Daniel 9:25 a “week” refers to seven years instead of seven days. A “week” of years is similar to a decade. A decade is ten years; but a “week” of years is seven years. So we have 7 ‘sevens’ and 62 ‘sevens’. If you add 7 weeks plus 62 weeks there is 69 weeks of years.
69 weeks of years is 69 times 7 years which equals 483 years.
The U.S.A. currently uses the Gregorian calendar that is a 365-day year, based upon the Anno Domini system that counts years from the traditional incarnation of Yeshua the Messiah. Ancient calendars by the Hebrews, Egyptians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Chinese, Mayans and other civilizations were based on a 360-day year. These ancient calendars usually were based on twelve 30-day months.  We see this reflected in Bible prophecies in both the Tanakh (Old Testament) and New Testament with a 30-day month and a 360-day year, referred to by some Biblical scholars and theologians as a “Prophetic Calendar” 
So 69 times 7 years equals 483 years,
and 483 years times 360-days equals 173,880 days.
Gabriel gave insight to Daniel that from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until an anointed Prince there will be seven seven-year periods plus sixty-two seven-year periods of time; which equals 483 years. Then when we multiply 483 years times 360-days this equals 173,880 days. This anointed One, the Mäshiach, who is the anointed “Prince of Peace”, the “Prince of princes”, the King of kings; came to redeem God’s people and atone for our sins; “the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him.” 
The English word “prince” used here in Hebrew is “nagid” – a leader, ruler, prince, commander-in-chief, or king.  Isaiah tells us that Mäshiach is “Mighty God”, “Prince of Peace”.  He is also the “Commander of the host” of heaven, the “Prince of princes”,  He is the anointed “King of kings” and Lord of lords. 
When did the anointed One, the Mäshiach, the anointed King come to Jerusalem? Yeshua the Mäshiach rode into Jerusalem on a colt, the foal of a donkey and was presented as King on April 6, 32 A.D. 
The Hebrew prophet Zachariah prophesied under the inspiration of the Spirit of the Lord;
Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion!
Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem!
See, your king comes to you,
righteous and having salvation,
gentle and riding on a donkey,
on a colt, the foal of a donkey.
Zachariah 9:9 NIV
We read in chapter 19 of Luke’s account about an important event of the ministry of Yeshua the Mäshiach;
35They brought it to Jesus,
and they threw their coats on the colt and put Jesus on it.
36As He was going, they were spreading their coats on the road.
37As soon as He was approaching,
near the descent of the Mount of Olives,
the whole crowd of the disciples
began to praise God joyfully with a loud voice
for all the miracles which they had seen,
38shouting: ”BLESSED IS THE KING
WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD;
Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!”
39Some of the Pharisees in the crowd said to Him,
“Teacher, rebuke Your disciples.”
40But Jesus answered,
“I tell you, if these become silent,
the stones will cry out!”
Luke 19:35-40 NASB
From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem on March 14, 445 B.C. by Artaxerxes Longimanus until Yeshua arrived and was presented in Jerusalem as the Messianic King on April 6, 32 A.D.; we discover that when we calculate 69 weeks of years (or 483 years and correct for leap years) it figures out to be 173,880 days to the day. 
How is this possible, to announce the coming of the Anointed One, the Lord’s Mäshiach, the King of Zion; five centuries before the historical event transpires in precise detail? The Tanakh is an amazing collection of books, our awesome God orchestrated it. YHVH our Elohim is omniscient, the future is as clear to Him as the present and the past; He knows the beginning from the end. YHVH our Elohim is the A & Z, the beginning and the end, the Creator and the Judge. Our Father in heaven wanted His people to know exactly when His Son, the Prince of princes and King of kings; would arrive on earth and step forward as the Messiah. God is faithful, He keeps His promises, He is not like men, nor is He like the sons of men who do not fulfill their word. 
In Daniel 9:24 God’s angelic messenger Gabriel communicated that it had been our heavenly Father’s plan to redeem us by paying the debt of sin, in order to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, and to bring in everlasting righteousness. The penalty for sin was paid for. Messiah’s sacrificial death on the cross was not for his own transgressions, but His suffering and excruciating execution on the cross were for our sin; His life was given as an atonement for our transgressions. His human body was “cut off”, he was crucified. Yeshua is the perfect sacrificial Lamb who is without sin, the day of His death on the cross was God’s provision for all sin for all time; it was the day of atonement. He is the one who came to save His people from all of our sins.
The city of Jerusalem and the glorious second temple were destroyed as foretold by Gabriel to Daniel in chapter 9 verse 26;
After the sixty-two weeks the Anointed One will be cut off,
but not for Himself.
The people of the prince that will come;
will destroy the city and the temple,
the end will come with a flood
and desolations are determined until the end of the war.
Daniel 9:26 HSV
YHVH Elohim sent Gabriel to tell His people that an Anointed Prince, who is the promised Messiah must come, atone for sin and be killed before the destruction of Jerusalem and the second temple which occurred in 70 A.D., when the Roman legions fought under Titus Vespasian and the Roman army leveled the city. Tragically, most of the Jewish people did not recognize the time of their visitation by Yeshua the Mäshiach, God’s promised Messianic King.
“because you did not recognize the time of your visitation.”
As the anointed King approached Jerusalem, He wept over the city and He gave the reason why the second temple and the city of Jerusalem were destroyed as predicted by Gabriel in Daniel 9:26;
41When He approached Jerusalem,
He saw the city and wept over it,
42saying, “If you had known in this day,
even you, the things which make for peace!
But now they have been hidden from your eyes.
43″For the days will come upon you
when your enemies will throw up a barricade against you,
and surround you and hem you in on every side,
44and they will level you to the ground
and your children within you,
and they will not leave in you one stone upon another,
because you did not recognize the time of your visitation.”
Luke 19:41-44 NASB
Both God’s messenger the angel Gabriel and Yeshua the Son God, the promised Messiah prophesied the destruction of the second temple and Jerusalem. In the Bible we see both the severity of God’s judgment and the mercy and love of our Father who is in heaven. Messiah Yeshua explained God’s plan for our redemption and salvation, and how to receive eternal life.
14“As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness,
even so must the Son of Man be lifted up;
15so that whoever believes will in Him have eternal life.
16“For God so loved the world,
that He gave His only begotten Son,
that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.
17“For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world,
but that the world might be saved through Him.
18“He who believes in Him is not judged;
he who does not believe has been judged already,
because he has not believed
in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
John 3:14-18 NASB
In the fullness of times, Messiah did come and was presented as King in Jerusalem. In the Gospel of John we read how God blesses all those who believe in and receive His Son, Yeshua the promised Messiah;
11He came to His own,
and those who were His own did not receive Him.
12But as many as received Him,
to them He gave the right to become children of God,
even to those who believe in His name,
13who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh
nor of the will of man, but of God.
John 1:11-13 NASB
The seventieth week is a seven-year period of time that soon will be upon us, known as “the time of Jacob’s trouble”. This seven-year period of time is revealed to us prophetically by the Lord our God in much detail by the prophets.  At the end of God’s prophetic 70th week, there will be a great tribulation, such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now, nor ever will.  Yeshua the Messiah, the Son of the living God will come on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory. He will send His angels with a great trumpet and they will gather together His elect people from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.  Then God’s righteous wrath will be poured out on the earth  and then Messiah will return as promised and fight the wars of God , set up His messianic millennial reign of peace;  where He will rule the nations in the strength of His might with a rod of iron from Jerusalem.  Blessed are those who long for His appearing!
 Anderson, Robert, The Coming Prince, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1894. The classic work on the Seventy Weeks of Daniel.
 Genesis 22:1-19
 Missler, Chuck, “Hidden Treasures in the Biblical Text”, Koinonia House, 2001, Page 43.
 Genesis 7:24; 8:3,4; Revelation 11:2; 12:6; 13:3,4
 Isaiah 53:6 NASB
 New American Standard, Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible; Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries: Holman, Nashville, TN.
 Isaiah 9:6
 Daniel 8:11 & 25.
 Revelation 19:16
 Luke 3:1, Tiberias appointed in A.D. 14; 15th year, A.D. 29; the 4th Passover occurred in A.D. 32. Also, read the thought provoking book by author: McDowell, Josh, “The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict”, Thomas Nelson, 1999, page 199.
 Missler, Chuck, “Daniel’s 70 Weeks”, Koinonia House, 2004. (Also, the recording of “Expositional Commentary on Daniel”)
 Numbers 23:19
 Jeremiah 30:1-24, Matthew 24:15-35, Revelation chapters 6 to chapter 19.
 Matthew 24:21
 Matthew 24:29-31
 Revelation 16:1-21
 Zechariah 12:8-10, Zechariah 14:2-4, Isaiah 2:12-19, Isaiah 63:1-6, Revelation 19:11-21
 Isaiah 2:1-4, Isaiah 11:1-10
 Revelation 2:27, Revelation 19:15, Ezekiel 40-48
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